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Articles in Newspapers



  • (2023) The Impact of The Inflation Towards GDP In Singapore. [Lau J.Y.] -Belum Publish


  • (2022) Education, Health Infrastructure and [Chin-Yu Lee, Chor Foon Tang] Taylor & Francis Group



    • Islamic Social Science Research Methodology [Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami, Ellisha Nasruddin, Moh. Mudzakkir] UUM Press
    • Sajak Nusantara Siri 2 [Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami, et al (ed) + Also as Contributing Author] MIHI UMY
    • CSR Islam : Tujuh Tonggak Transformasi Organisasi untuk Bisnis dan Masyarakat [Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami, Moh, Mudzakkir, Elisha Nasruddin] UUM Press
    • Nasionalisme: Ragam dan Rasa [Adi Fahrudin, Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami, Lusi Andriyani, Wanda Kiyah George Albert (ed)] Idea Press Yogyakarta
    • Matriks Perdamaian : Teori Berkembar Hubungan Indonesia-Malaysia (2021) [Mohammad Reevany bin Bustami] Idea Press Yogyakarta
    • Aplikasi Penapaian Dalam Makanan Tradisional Tiga Etnik Terbesar Di Malaysia [Husnul Azan Tajarudin & Dayang Haszelinna Abang Ali] USM

    Working Paper Series

    Working Paper Series 2013

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 147/13


    Dr. Tan Yao Sua Dr. Goh Soo Khoon

    [Nov 2013]


    This paper examines the responses of a Malaysian public university, namely Universiti Sains Malaysia, to the impact of globalization vis-à-vis three key issues: international students, academic publications and world university rankings. There are concerted efforts put in place by the university to recruit more international students. But a global branding is needed to offset factors that have worked against its recruitment of international students. In the area of academic publications, there has been an increased emphasis on publications in citation-indexed journals in line with the globalised context of academic publications. Concerted efforts have also been put in place to enhance the reputation of academic journals published by the university. It is in the area of world university rankings that the counter-globalization stand of the university has been most thought provoking in that it has rejected this standard benchmark for academic excellence by proposing an alternative benchmark.

    Working Paper Series 2012

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 146/12


    Dr. Michael Lim Mah-Hui Dr. Goh Soo Khoon

    [Dec 2012]


    Malaysia, along with other Southeast Asian countries, suffered the worst of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The experience of that crisis had not faded when Malaysia entered the 2008 crisis in a relatively strong position as far as government and corporate balance sheets where concerned. A key factor contributing to Malaysia’s ability to respond to the 2008 crisis was the buildup of ample foreign exchange reserves. Given its lower exposure to foreign debt, there was little currency mismatch. In order to derive benefit as well as shield this country from increasingly deeper integration into the world trade and financial system, Malaysian policymakers will need to remain open to pragmatic and flexible policies. These include targeting asset inflation and a willingness to “lean against the wind”. While government and corporate balance sheets are healthy, household balance sheets are an area of concern. The ratio of household debt to disposable income in Malaysia, driven by an increase in house prices and a deterioration of the housing affordability index in major urban cities is an area of concern.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 145/12


    Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers Mr. Ramli Nordin

    [June 2012]


    This paper analyses how various actors have used potent urban symbols to assert their vision of a modern, globalized Malay identity in the construction of the recently founded knowledge city of Cyberjaya, part of the flagship Multimedia Super Corridor project. As the state controls both the land and the urban planning process it has attempted to impose its own particularistic vision of Malaysian society on urban space and urban structures. This is demonstrated through an analysis of the discursive vision behind Cyberjaya, the logos of government corporations, the use of architectural forms and motifs, and the treatment of urban space itself. The discussion suggests the spatial and symbolic universe of Cyberjaya draws on both patterns of ‘traditional’ Malay life as well a projected vision of a modernized Malay identity that resonates with a globalized Islam. This generates contestations in which other possible imaginings of Cyberjaya’s symbolic space become possible.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 144/12


    Dr Tan Yao Sua [May 2012]


    Since the 1950s, the Chinese educationists relied on internal negotiations within the ruling coalition government to resolve issues relating to Chinese education. But in the 1980s, the need for a new political strategy began to emerge following difficulties to safeguard the interests of Chinese education within the ruling coalition government. It is against this backdrop that the role of Lim Fong Seng as a leader of the Chinese education movement has become significant. In early 1980s, he advocated the political collaboration between the Chinese educationists and the Chinese-based political parties in the ruling coalition as well as in the opposition to strengthen the Chinese education movement through the fostering of Chinese political unity. He subsequently supported a group of Chinese educationists to join a Chinese-based political party in the ruling coalition to facilitate this collaboration. But such a move failed to bring about the desired outcome. However, this did not deter him from seeking a political solution to the Chinese education movement. Following his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement in the mid 1980s, he was deeply committed to the formation of an opposition front to counter Malay political dominance within the ruling coalition government. This political dominance was seen by him as detrimental to the securing of the basic rights of the Chinese, including equality for mother tongue education. Together with a group of civil rights activists, he joined a Chinese-based opposition political party in 1990 to work towards the formation of an opposition front. But this political endeavor did not yield the intended results. While Lim Fong Seng’s efforts to strengthen the Chinese education movement through political participation are certainly commendable, it is unfortunate that due to a host of m

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 143/12


    Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke [March 2012]


    Science is central to development, providing the knowledge inputs for social, institutional and technological innovations which are key drivers of economic and social development. The role that science and knowledge governance can play for development is, however, not fully valued. Sound policy and strategies are needed for domestic and international science policy, especially in emerging economies and in institutions who aim to support their development. Of increasing importance are knowledge-based innovations. To assess science policy requires interdisciplinary research efforts to link questions of innovation and implementation with research endeavors regarding institutional support systems for science production and the identification of the respective, locally grounded science policy for sustainable growth. Science policy is understood here as the design of science landscapes, institutional arrangements for science funding and partnerships, and the setting of goals and allocation of resources to science priorities

    Working Paper Series 2011

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 142/09


    Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers Mr. Sezali Md Darit

    [Oct 2011]

    Abstract : 

    Location at the entrance /gateway to the Indian Ocean and its long coastline provide Penang State with a substantial maritime potential. The maritime potential and its utilization by a maritime economy have been captured by an index, developed by the Centre for Policy Research and International Studies, USM. Using data of the CenPRIS Ocean Index the paper will analyse the competitive position of Penang in relation to Singapore, Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Malacca, Selangor, Perak, Kedah and Perlis, all states along the Straits of Malacca. The question will be asked and at least partially answered, whether or not Penang has realized its maritime potential and has moved ahead of its competitors along the Straits of Malacca, serving as a gateway to the Indian Ocean. The development of the other maritime states will provide a benchmark, through which the performance of Penang can be measured. It will be argued that Penang’s maritime potential as a gateway to the Indian Ocean could be more fully realized and some of the connections across the Indian Ocean will be highlighted.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 141/09

    The British educational policy for the indigenous community in Malaya 1870–1957: Dualistic structure, colonial interests and Malay radical nationalism

    Tan Yao Sua

    Abstract : 

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education served different purposes and needs of the British. The Malay peasantry was provided with a rural-based Malay education which only had limited value in terms of educational mobility. This rural-based education was to serve as a means of social control for the British by entrapping the Malays in the semi-subsistence economy. On the other hand, the British provided the Malay nobility with an elitist English education that was intended to co-opt the ruling Malay traditional elites into their fold. But contrary to the intention of the British, the Malay-educated intelligentsia, in particular those from the Sultan Idris Training College became radical nationalists who adopted an anti-British stand. Such an unintended development was the result of the role played by O.T. Dussek (the college principal), the infusion of nationalistic sentiment from neighboring Indonesia and the threat posed by the Chinese immigrants. However, the radical stand of the Malay-educated intelligentsia was neutralized by the Malay traditional elites who adopted a pro-British stand. It was the Malay traditional elites who eventually led the Malays toward the independence of Malaya.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 140/09


    Dr Lim Ewe Ghee Dr Goh Soo Khoon

    [March 2011]

    Abstract : 

    This paper examines Bank Negara Malaysia’s (BNM) monetary policy autonomy in 1991-2009, a period of volatile capital flows, during which BNM operated under several exchange regimes: managed floating; fixed exchange rates; and fixed exchange rates with selective capital controls. Using a modified version of the Brissimis, Gibson and Tsakalotos (2002) model, the paper’s empirical estimates show that the same-period offset coefficients are significantly less than unity under all regimes, indicating that the Malaysian central bank possesses some short-run control over monetary policy (even under fixed exchange rates). Although the long-run offset coefficient continues to be less than unity under managed floating, it is not significantly less than unity under fixed exchange rates. These results show that Malaysia is not exempted from the impossible trinity except in the very short-run. Perhaps one of the reasons Malaysia abandoned its US dollar exchange rate peg on 20 July 2005 to move back to managed floating is to increase its monetary policy independence. One implication of the Malaysian monetary policy experience is that managed floating with active sterilization may

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 139/11


    Dr Leow Ghin Yin [Jan 2011]

    Abstract : 

    Motivated by the concern of persistent decline in private domestic investment in Malaysia since the 1997 crisis, this paper empirically investigates the determinants for Malaysia’s private domestic investment from 1975-2009. Using the Johansen cointegration techniques, the results indicate a long-run relationship between private domestic investment, economic output, domestic credit, interest rate, government spending and openness of the economy. Availability of credit supply and a competitive interest rate stimulate Malaysia’s private domestic investment. However, government spending tends to ‘crowd-out’ them. In the short-run, private domestic investment decisions in Malaysia are determined by economic output, domestic credit, interest rate, government spending and openness of the economy. Investment responds fastest to changes of economic output. Government spending and openness of the economy leave significant positive impact. Credit supply has weak negative impact on investment decisions, implying some short-term credit constraints.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 138/11


    Dr. Michael Lim Mah-Hui Dr. Khor Hoe Ee

    [Jan 2009]

    Abstract : 

    Despite robust growth, rising inequality is widespread in many countries. At the same time financial instability and crises are occurring with greater frequency and severity. These two phenomena are related to the contest for a greater share of economic output between labor and capital, with capital gaining a greater share over the past few decades. As a result, there is a tendency towards falling-consumption by the average household and rising savings by a rich minority that could cause stagnation in the economy. This contradiction between falling consumption and rising saving is “resolved” through the financial system by the recycling of funds from the rich minority to the average household in the form of credit. Financial engineering in the U.S. exacerbated this process that led to excessive lending and borrowing, and the creation of an unsustainable debt and asset bubble that eventually imploded. There is a similar tendency towards greater inequality, falling share of consumption, and rising share of savings and investment in China. However, in the context of a globalized world economy, the contradiction is “resolved” through a recycling of the “excess savings” from China to the U.S. adding to the debt and asset bubble in the U.S.

    Working Paper Series 2010

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 137/10


    Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers [Dec 2010]


    This paper describes the methods used to construct an index to measure the maritime potential of nations. This prototype uses a limited number of variables to measure (a) the locational advantage of having a long coastline in comparison to the landmass (Maritime Potential Index MPI) , (b) the maritime economy (MEI) and (c) the degree a nation or region has utilized its maritime potential (OI). A timeseries of data from 2000 to 2005 for ASEAN states are used to develop the prototype. It is planned to develop the index further by adding variables and extending the regional coverage to all states of Malaysia.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 136/10


    Sharan Srinivas [Sept 2010]


    The Arab-Israeli conflict remains one of the most intractable and long standing international disputes In the Spring of 2002, the Israeli government began construction of a contentious barrier in parts of the West Bank and Jerusalem that runs close to the 1949 cease-fire “Green Line”, but mostly on land occupied by Israel in 1967. On October 1, 2003, the Israeli Cabinet approved a significant expansion of the barrier project, which would intrude on roughly 15% of West Bank territory to surround Israeli settlements. In response to a question asked to it by the UN General Assembly on the legal implication of the barrier, the International Court of Justice on July 9, 2004 ruled in its advisory opinion that the barrier violated international law and that Israel must compensate those adversely affected by its construction. This paper seeks to analyze the ICJ advisory opinion and inspect the various sources of international humanitarian law used by the court to render its opinion declaring the Israeli barrier illegal. It will also, in the context of this particular opinion observe the role of the International Court of Justice in the development and advancement of international humanitarian law on the ground.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 135/10


    Dr. Goh Soo Khoon Dr. Wong Koi Nyen [Augt 2010]


    This paper extends the empirical literature of Malaysia’s outward FDI (OFDI) by considering the impact of foreign market size and home international reserves using multivariate cointegration and error-correction modeling techniques. The empirical results reveal that there is a positive long-run relationship between Malaysia’s OFDI and its key determinants, viz. foreign market size, real effective exchange rate, international reserves and trade openness. The main findings suggest that apart from the market-seeking incentive and the adoption of outward-oriented policies, the Malaysian government could also encourage OFDI by implementing liberal policy on capital outflows. The present study provides policy implications for the country’s economic development and the internationalization of Malaysian firms in the era of globalization.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 134/10


    Sharan Srinivas [Augt 2010]


    One of the enduring problems of the past century has been the increasing number of refugees displaced from their homes through a combination of different factors including war and more recently, ethnic cleansing. Once displaced, refugees may suffer many different fates. Some may be permanently relocated in third countries. Some may live indefinitely in squalid refugee camps run by the United Nations waiting for a political solution. Many of these refugees may want to return to their homes. Although the international legal principle of the ‘right of return’ guarantees them the right to do so, these rights have not been uniformly been available for refugees to avail due to differing realities on the ground. As a result, some situations, such as Kosovo, have seen a rapid return of refugees to their place of origin, whereas the majority of the significant displacements of the 20th century have never been reversed.This paper identifies the impact of various forms of international intervention in affirming the ‘right of return’ and on the actual returns of refugees in cases where ethnic conflict has occurred. Through analysis of several case studies, it examines the effects of various forms of international intervention including economic aid, military intervention during and after the conflict and protection of returning refugees. This paper intends to make a determination on whether international intervention is important in facilitating refugee repatriation and if so establish which policy tools used by the international community during and after ethnic conflict have been most successful in ensuring that the 'right of return' is a right attainable for all refugees.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 133/10


    Dr. Aone van Engelenhoven [July 2010]


    Language shift is a common feature in the speech communities around the world and of all times. In a scenario where a language is still acknowledged as a receptacle of knowledge, the loss of a traditional language or its exchange for another one may be considered to be either a loss of traditional knowledge or, alternatively, an exchange for a ‘better’ knowledge. The awareness of language endangerment is therefore intrinsically linked to the awareness of culture endangerment. This paper discusses three Southeast Asian languages, ‘Melayu sini’ in The Netherlands, Serua in Indonesia and Nisa or Rusenu in East-Timor that illustrate incipient, advanced and terminal language endangerment, respectively.‘Melayu sini’ features extensive mixing with Dutch in such a way that it becomes more and more difficult for its speakers to differentiate between both languages. In Serua, linguistic endangerment is signaled through irreversible attrition and even erosion of morphological system. Nisa or Rusenu is the prototypical moribund language, whose final speaker in fact is not even a semi-speaker but only remembers the language through a single lullaby.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 132/10


    Sharan Srinivas Sharan Srinivas [July 2010]


    One of the recurring themes in international environmental law and policy is the North-South divide over questions regarding the relationship between environmental protection and economic growth. This divide is particularly evident on the issue of the transportation and disposal of hazardous substances. This research paper aims to investigate the growing international environmental issue of shipbreaking, an issue that sees the competing objectives of economic growth, public health, international politics and environmental protection clash head on. After a discussion of the shipbreaking process and the threat it poses due to its environmental and health effects, this paper will analyze the interplay of international environmental law, economics and politics that have occurred in determining the current state of global shipbreaking. This paper will focus particularly on the case of the asbestos filled French warship Clemenceau, which in 2005 began a journey to the Alang shipyard in India to be decommissioned. Eventually, a mix of court decisions and NGO involvement forced the ship to return to France. Through an analysis of the Basel Convention, other applicable international law, judicial decisions on the Clemenceau case and subsequent writings of publicists, this paper will examine the current international legal regime with regard to shipbreaking and discuss current efforts being made to strengthen and improve it.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 131/10


    Dr. Diana Wong Ms. Ngu Ik Tien [July 2010]


    By reviewing the history of the establishment of a national Christian organization, The Bridge and its main publication, a nationally circulated magazine, the paper intends to examine the concerns and struggles of rural Chinese Christians for recognition and visibility in a newly formed nation. It is an attempt to fill a gap in the scholarship on Malaysian Christianity which has been focused on denominational church history and the development of urban churches in the period of post Independence. The paper shows how Chinese Christian intellectuals who operate in the Chinese language have engaged the East Asian and overseas Chinese Christian network while searching for their destiny in the national context of Malaysia. By pointing to the multiplicity of these networks and the complexity of non-western Christian subjectivity, the paper hopes to make a contribution to on-going debates on issues of localization, trans-nationalization and authenticity in global Christianity.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 130/10


    Sharan Srinivas [July 2010]


    In a time when much of the world appears focused on the specter of religious extremism, it is important not to forget the threat posed in many parts of the world by ethno-nationalist terrorism. From the LTTE in Sri Lanka to various organizations fighting in Palestine to the Irish Republican Army in Northern Ireland, ethno-nationalist terrorists are similar in that they seize on the grievances of ethnic minorities and mobilize these communities against their respective governments. This paper will focus on case studies of two of the most enduring political problems of the last century; the 'troubles' of Northern Ireland and the Palestinian Question. In each of these cases, ethno-nationalist terrorism has led to the death of many innocent civilians. Whereas intermittent terrorist activity continues in Israel and the Occupied Territories, peace appears to be here to stay in Northern Ireland nearly a decade after the signing of the 1998 Good Friday peace accords. Beginning by examining the shared commonalities of motivation and historical origins of the respective terrorist groups, the paper will then discuss the various strategies that have been used to in countering terrorism and peacemaking in these areas.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 129/10


     Professor Chan Chee Khoon [July 2010]


    Dr MK Rajakumar fought the good fight on many fronts. In the 1970s, with domestic left-wing politics on the ebb, Dr Rajakumar shifted his energies to another arena of human endeavor he was passionate about, health and medical care for the needful. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Dr Rajakumar worked tirelessly to advance primary care medicine and to raise the standard of its practice in Malaysia and in the region. This article explores his writings on primary care within the context of an emerging population health perspective.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 128/10


    Sharan Srinivas [June 2010]


    Historical, political and global forces have brought disparate and different looking peoples to live together and share the same land. Every multi ethnic state is a work in progress and maintaining communal harmony always involves a lot of constant hard work. Today, in northeast India, most, if not all spheres of public life in the region are largely communalised. Self styled insurgency groups compete with mainstream political parties to promise effective redress and remedies to particular ethnic groups who are victims of social injustice. Militants use violence to further their aims, often inviting heavy retaliation from security forces. A climate of impunity prevails, where both sides often indiscriminately violate human rights norms. Ethnic minorities and women are very often the worst affected and the most marginalised by the communalisation that has engulfed the region. This paper examines the effects of communal politics on the lives of ethnic minorities and women in the northeastern state of Tripura. Tripura was chosen as a case study because the speaker visited the state in 2009 and 2010 and held consultations with a wide range of stakeholders on the issue of communalisation, particularly within the police force and public services. Though the region is too vast and varied for one to claim that the situation in Tripura is fully representative of it, there nevertheless remain several important parallels between the state and the northeast as a whole. Indeed, the implications of communal politics in Tripura on minorities and women are indicative of the larger challenges policymakers in multi-ethnic states face in their respective ongoing projects of national integration.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 127/10


    Dr Tan Yao Sua [May 2010]


    Between 1952 and 1967, the Chinese educationists in Malaysia launched the Chinese language movement to demand for the recognition of the Chinese language as one of the official languages of the country in order to legitimize the status of Chinese education within the ambit of the national education system. However, this movement had aroused intense ethnic sentiments and heightened ethnic tensions between the Chinese and the Malays. This paper begins by tracing the genesis of the movement during the British colonial period. It then examines the reasons behind the willingness of the Chinese educationists to halt the movement prior to the first Federal Election held in 1955 to elect the first interim local government. It goes on to discuss the reasons leading to the revival of the movement after the 1955 Federal Election. It further discusses the collaboration between the Chinese educationists and major Chinese associations to advance the movement. Finally, it examines the reaction of the Malay nationalists towards the movement and its demise following the enactment of the National Language Act in 1967.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 126/10


    Dr Lim Ewe Ghee [May 2010]


    Drawing from Japan’s experience, this paper argues that a cave-in to bashing can lead to a destructive dynamic whereby bashing causes cave-in (appreciation), unresolved trade surplus, which sets up expectations of further bashing and more cave-ins—as long the surplus remains unresolved. Bashing is a political weapon that changes the economic environment and a problem in itself. Thus China must not cave in to U.S. bashing. The paper argues that China’s exports reflect productivity increases and the financial stability delivered by its fixed exchange rate system; that buying/selling foreign exchange to maintain fixed rates is not currency manipulation--otherwise almost all countries would be currency manipulators because most have managed floats; that a free float would not be right for China; and that appreciation alone will not solve the surplus “problem” but China would likely deflate. The paper argues that the trade frictions likely reflect U.S. special interests in the export and import-competing sectors, which have lost out to Chinese competition; by agitating for appreciation, the special interests will increase costs/lower living standards for millions of U.S. consumers and throw millions of poor Chinese laborers out of work. The paper recommends that China assesses its exchange regime based solely on its economy’s own needs; that it must ensure that any policy revision is not viewed as a cave-in to bashing, which would be interpreted as a loss of control of its economic destiny. The U.S. must rein in the special interests; and reform its broken Social Security/Medicare and tax system to encourage rather than discourage saving.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 125/10


     Professor Erik Ringmar [April 2010]


    The problems of the international system inaugurated at Westphalia, 1648, are well known, but particularly acute in the face of the challenges of globalization. Even if a world government is impossible to achieve, we need new ways of providing world governance. This the Westphalian system, with its guarantees for state sovereignty and decentralized decision-making, cannot achieve. By contrast, two East Asian international systems -- the tributary system of imperial China and the sankin kotai system of Tokugawa Japan -- provided better means of achieving collective outcomes. In this article these three systems are contrasted and compared through an analysis of the way they were performed in front of different audiences.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 124/10


    Dr. Maria A. Salas [April 2010]


    TThis is a methodological case study. It deals with the question on how to organise a process of bridging farmers’ and scientists’ knowledge on food sovereignty. The source for this methodological reflection is a workshop that took place in the Highlands of Peru in December 2009 with farmers and community facilitators from Peru and Bolivia.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 123/10


     Professor Chan Chee Khoon [March 2010]


    This paper begins with a theoretical perspective on privatisation which links it with systemic tendencies towards over-accumulation in the global capitalist economy. To analyse health system dynamics, the health system is conceptualised as an articulation of component subsystems (provision, financing, treatment accessories, support services, research and product development, education and training, etc). These sub-systems are increasingly brought within the circuit of capital, in the process re-configuring the fine structure of the system along with its built-in incentives and disincentives which interactively modulate the system’s overall operating characteristics. The paper ends with an update on the evolving role of the Malaysian state as provider, as financier, as investor, and as regulator of the health system.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 122/10


    Mr. Chor Foon Tang [March 2010]


    The objective of this study is to investigate the health-income relationship for the ASEAN-5 economies within the time series framework from 1970 to 2006. This study adopted the bounds testing approach to cointegration developed by Pesaran et al. (2001) to examine the presence of long run equilibrium relationship via the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. The empirical evidence reveals that health expenditure and income are cointegrated for the case of Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. On the contrary, for the case of Malaysia and the Philippines, we found that these variables are not moving together in the long run. Apart from that, the bootstrap Granger causality tests results suggest that income Granger cause health expenditure for all the selected ASEAN countries, except Indonesia (neutral causality).

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 121/10


     Mr. Chor Foon Tang [March 2010]


    This study attempts to re-investigate the validity of tourism-led growth hypothesis for Malaysia based on the dataset of twelve different tourism markets from January 1995 to February 2009. The ECM-based cointegration test (Kremers et al., 1992) shows that economic growth and international tourist arrivals are cointegrated for all tourism markets. Nevertheless, the Granger causality results demonstrate that not all international tourism markets are Granger-cause economic growth. Therefore, identification of potential tourism markets is vital for implementing effective tourism marketing policies.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 120/10


     Professor Chan Chee Khoon [Mac 2010]


    The Federal Constitution of Malaysia decrees that with the notable exceptions of land matters and matters pertaining to the Islamic religion, all other areas which are subject to governmental jurisdiction fall under the federal purview. Notwithstanding this, the Johor state government operates through its corporate arm, the Johor Corporation, a diversified healthcare conglomerate which includes the largest chain of private hospitals distributed throughout the country (Kumpulan Perubatan Johor), a veritable mini-Ministry of Health but operated along largely commercial lines. Should the Penang state government explore the feasibility of a non-profit, publicly-owned version of the Kumpulan Perubatan Johor? A modest chain of state-owned (and operated?) medium-sized hospitals which could provide medium-cost healthcare and at the same time serve as a price bulwark against even steeper price increases in the for-profit private sector? Hospitals aside, what are other potential interventions that the state government could consider, to improve population health in Penang within the existing (and foreseeable) political, economic and jurisdictional contingencies? Improved urban management of the (social) ecology of dengue propagation and transmission?

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 119/10


    Dr. Yukio Tokuda [Jan 2010]


    This article aims to indicate the common structure of “conversion” in Christianity and “eshin” in Buddhism, suggest a common structure of human existence beyond the difference of the religions. The important commonalities in these religious transformative experiences are their discontinuity and passivity. Both characteristics refer to common structure of religions and human being. In this sense, conversion and “e-shin” could present an effective means to approach not only the core of religions but also human existence itself.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 118/10


    Mr Chor Foon Tang [Jan 2010]


    The main objective of this study is to empirically re-investigate the money-prices nexus for Malaysia through the Johansen multivariate cointegration and MWALD causality techniques. This study covered the monthly dataset from 1971:M1 to 2008:M11. The Johansen cointegration test suggests that the variables under investigation are co-move in the long run. Furthermore, the MWALD causality test shows a bidirectional causal relationship between money supply (M2) and aggregate prices, meaning that both the monetarist’s and also the structuralists’ views vindicate in the Malaysian economy. However, the time-varying cointegration and causality tests indicate that the cointegrating and also the causal relationships are not stable over the analysis period. These results suggest that inflation in Malaysia is not purely monetary phenomenon. Therefore, implementing tighten monetary policy may not be an effective macroeconomic instrument in managing the inflationary behaviour in the Malaysian economy.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 117/10


    Dr Goh Soo Khoon Dr Lim Mah Hui Dr Tan Yao Sua [Jan 2010]


    This paper argues that the current Global Financial Crisis (GFC) is different from the 1998 Asian Financial Crisis (AFC) in terms of its impact on Malaysia’s economy. The AFC was essentially a financial crisis that led to the collapse of Malaysia’s currency, financial industry and economy. In contrast, the impact of the current GFC is on the export sector with direct repercussions on Malaysia’s real economy. This paper reveals the structural weaknesses of Malaysia’s economy. It shows that growth in Malaysia’s economy has become more tradedependent after the AFC. But, domestic investments, including foreign direct investments, grew anemically after the AFC. This does not augur well for its long-term growth and productivity. This paper also raises concerns on whether the expansionary policies, without meaningful structural changes, will yield the right economic remedies to cope with the recession. Lastly, the paper assesses the New Economic Model proposed by the present government. Malaysia will need to address a number of weaknesses before it can escape its middle income trap and climb up to the next income ladder.

    Working Paper Series 2009

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 116/09


    Professor Dato' Anwar Fazal [Jan 2010]

    Abstract : 

    Anwar Fazal shares insights from the Sustainable Penang Initiative (SPI),a two year pioneering project based in the State of Penang,Malaysia. It describes how the project systematically addressed the challenge of sustainable development at the local level through a systematic process of popular consultations, creating community indicators and developing participatory action plans. These consultations were held around a five point vision - social justice, ecological sustainability, economic productivity,cultural vibrancy and popular participation. Creative methods of brainstorming and action orientation through skilled facilitation and the active participation of stakeholders from civil society, state and business led to both concrete inputs into the State Governments Strategic Plan and several new partnerships around key issues such as water, empowering people with disabilities, and public transport. The project was supported by the Canada based Institute on Governance, and involved several United Nations agencies.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 115/09


    Professor Chan Chee Khoon [Dec 2009]

    Abstract : 

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government’s White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioral focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 114/09


    Dr. Goh Soo Khoon Mr. Tuck Cheong Tang Ms. Koong Seow Shin [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    This paper re-examines the degree of capital mobility for Malaysia by applying the model proposed by Shibata and Shintani (1998), as well as the extension model by Cooray (2005). Three empirical contributions are derived from this paper. Firstly, the empirical results suggest that capital seems to be mobile in Malaysia, hence, suggesting Malaysia exhibited substantial amount of financial openness despite periodic exchange controls. Secondly, the empirical observation indicates the importance of incorporating relevant instrumental variables in testing capital mobility via GMM estimator. Lastly, this paper finds that the real interest rate differential is not associated to changes in consumption in Malaysia but the Asian Currency Crisis (1997- 1998) is found to be significant and negative to the changes in consumption.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 113/09


    Mr. Tuck Cheong Tang Dr. Venus Khim-Sen Liew [Nov 2009]

    Abstract : 

    This study contributes to the existing literature by examining the validity of PPP hypothesis for Cambodia. The standard unit root tests (ADF and PP) and the panel unit root tests fail to support PPP hypothesis for the nine Cambodia’s trading partners. The unit root tests with structural break support the PPP hypothesis for the bilateral real exchange rates of Euro, Indonesia rupiah, Malaysia ringgit, and Singapore dollar. This finding is found to be relevant for ‘de-dollarization’ strategy in Cambodia, and in responding to recent global financial crisis (2007-2008).

    CenPPIS Working Paper No. 112/09


    Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers [Nov 2009]

    Abstract : 

    Sejarah yang sama dan jaringan ekonomi, sosial dan budaya yang semakin padat merupakan mata rantai yang menghubungkan daerah-daerah yang berbatasan di wilayah Selat Melaka . Karena itu sudah selayaknya untuk berbicara mengenai yang disebut “Wilayah Selat Melaka ” yang ditandai oleh penduduk yang sukunya beragam, peningkatan urbanisasi dan potensi pertumbuhan yang sangat besar. Makalah ini tidak hanya menganalisa potensi pertumbuhan ekonomi, tetapi juga mengacu pada bahaya tersembunyi dari wilayah yang keragamannya tinggi.

    CenPPIS Working Paper No. 111/09


    Associate Professor Dr. Kamarudin Ngah [Sep 2009]

    Abstract : 

    The ability to overcome current issues and the readiness to face future challenges are estimated differently between one local authority to another. Local authorities whom are equipped with strong finance, visionary leadership, systematic strategic and action planning, and public support will definitely be more prepared to face those challenges. This article will examine several main findings on the future issues and challenges of local authorities in Malaysia, by referring to Seberang Perai Municipality Council as case study

    CenPPIS Working Paper No. 110/09

    Directors’ Pay-Performance: A Study on Malaysian Government Linked Companies

    Dr. Hooy Chee Wooi Mr. Tee Chwee Ming

    [Aug 2009]

    Abstract : 

    This paper examines pay-performance framework of Malaysian Government Linked Companies (GLCs) for the financial year 2001-2006 using panel regression approach. The GLCs pay determinant is modeled upon 4 core groups, namely, accounting ratios, company size, market measurement and board structure. In short, accounting ratios are found to be significantly positive linked to pay and company size remains the dominant pay determinant. Our empirical findings suggest that corporate governance compliance is not reflected in paid. The insignificant abnormal returns imply that GLCs board adopts a prudent risk management policy. The Achilles heel of GLCs is the failure of independent directors to be effective internal monitors of the company. The insignificant relationship is indeed puzzling as GLCs fulfill the minimum 33% threshold required by the Malaysian code of corporate governance as reported in Securities Commission (2007).

    CenPPIS Working Paper No. 109/09


    Dr. Goh Soo Khoon [Aug 2009]

    Abstract : 

    This paper discusses how Malaysia manages the impossible trinity, the conjecture that a country cannot simultaneously maintain an open capital account, an exchange rate stability and an independent monetary policy. Only two out of these three goals can be mutually consistent and policy makers have to decide which third goal to give up. The paper shows how Malaysia adopts an intermediate regime -- a regime that enables policy makers to manage all the three goals simultaneously. This paper considers the impact of the global financial crisis on the Malaysian economy and the policy options for Malaysia to deal with the recent huge capital outflows. The willingness by the BNM to allow a certain extent of exchange rate adjustment in the face of current global crisis reflects that Malaysia is not exempt from the impossible trinity.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 108/09


    Dr. Tan Yao Sua

    [July 2009]

    Abstract : 

    Lim Lian Geok and Aminuddin Baki are two prominent educationists who had played a significant role to safeguard the educational interests of their respective communities in the 1950s and early 1960s. The 1950s and early 1960s were two crucial periods in the educational development of Malaysia, which involved the restructuring of the ethnic-based segregated school systems instituted by the British colonial government. This process of restructuring was to facilitate the transition from colonial rule to self government. It had a profound impact on the development of Chinese and Malay education as far as the roles of education as a tool for nation building and as a means of social mobility were concerned. It is against this backdrop that the roles of Lim Lian Geok and Aminuddin Baki had taken different trajectories underpinned by conflicting interests to safeguard the educational interests of their respective communities. This paper examines the contrasting roles played by Lim Lian Geok and Aminuddin Baki in the educational development of their respective communities in relation to two key issues. First, it looks at their stand on the establishment of national schools as the crucible of nation building. Second, it examines their stand on the elevation of Malay as the main medium of instruction, which was not only tied to the nation building process but also the educational mobility of the Malays.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 107/09


    Dr. Hooy Chee Wooi Prof. Dr. Goh Kim Leng

    [July 2009]

    Abstract : 

    This paper employs a capital asset pricing model that incorporates both world and trading-bloc factors to show that the recent trend of trade regionalism has led to segmentation of world stock markets. The model is developed within a multivariate GARCH framework. The conditional time-varying betas are derived to examine the dynamics of risk exposures to the world and tradingbloc factors. The results show risk exposure behaviour that is not revealed using static risk estimates.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 106/09

    The role of social comparison, perceived fairness and reciprocity in labor contract: An experimental study 

    K.S,Ch’ng [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    We replicate the Gift Exchange Game in Gachter and Falk (2002) to investigate the role of social comparison of wage, the formation of fairness and its effect on the workers’ reciprocal behavior. We conduct total of three experimental sessions with different treatment. In the first random matching treatment, we find that workers form fairness based on wage offered by previous employer. Since the matching is random, although the wage offered is fair and exceeds the previous wage, worker does not reciprocate. But workers are more reciprocal in the second fixed matching treatment. Since workers interact with the same employers, workers can judge the intention of the offer more easily than in the first treatment. We observe workers react to the change of wage closely. However, when the workers are exposed to market wage, workers change the anchoring behavior; market wage becomes more important than current wage in determining effort level. But the overall relative wage effect depends on the implicit behavior of the workers; high effort workers and low effort workers perceive wage differently. Although current wage exceeds market wage, low effort workers reciprocate more than high effort workers. But when the market wage exceeds own wage, high effort workers reduce effort level more than low effort workers. We conclude that different reciprocal behavior is due to self serving bias in which high effort should be compensated with high wage and low effort - low wage is fair. Therefore, using reciprocity to resolve problem of contractual incompleteness depends on the type of workers

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 105/09


    Dr. Hooy Chee Wooi Mr. Hooy Guat Khim Dr Tajul Ariffin Masron [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    Given the important role of SMEs as an endogenous growth factor in local economy, ensuring a strong and competitive development for this industry segment has become a key concern in making the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER) a success. This paper gauges the operating efficiency of SMEs in NCER in channelling financial resources to revenue and profit. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse 1047 SMEs in Kedah, Penang and Perak for the financial year 2007. DEA shows that only 20 SMEs scored 100% efficiency, and they are mostly from Kedah and Perak, Most of them are from Wholesale and Retail Trade and Restaurant and Hotels, follows by Financing Insurance, Real Estate, Investment and Business Services, and Manufacturing. This sectoral representation for the efficient SMEs is consistent with the distribution in NCER population. From our DEA analyses, we conclude three findings: first, financial efficiency is not related to company size; second, oversize in capital (inputs) is more critical than profit (output) generation in determining relative efficiency; third, the distribution of financial efficiency is not balance across the three states in NCER. The first and third points are consistent with the Korean case reported in Yang (2006).

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 104/09


    Abstract : 

    We everyday engage in the “Small Decision Making (SDM)”. This paper presents an experiment on SDM that consists of the two treatments: (1) the search treatment in the context of SDM under uncertainty, where the decision makers are not disclosed the payoff structure; (2) the choice treatment in the context of SDM under risk, where the decision makers are disclosed the payoff structure. The participants of the experiment participate in the search treatment first, then the choice treatment subsequently. The basic task is a binary choice among two alternatives—one is risky but higher EV and the other is safe alternative with lower EV— with the repetition of hundreds of trials. In the search treatment, the decision makers first make their choices without receiving any prior information on the possible outcomes and probabilities. In the choice treatment, the decision makers are informed of the information on the payoff structure. This paper studies behaviour when the difference in expected payoffs is quite small for a binary choice, and this choice task is repeated for hundreds of times. The results of the search treatment show that the tendency to select best reply to the past, and misestimation of the payoff distribution lead to robust deviations from maximisation. The results of the choice treatment show that the risk-averse decision makers engage in a substantial amount of mixing between a risky alternative and a safe alternative over hundreds of times. This paper proposes a model in which it is optimal for the decision makers to mix.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 103/09

    The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    Dr. Tan Yao Sua Dr. Santhiram R. Raman

    [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    The educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya, was underpinned by the policy of divide and rule. The British implemented a dual system of education for the Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. These two systems of education served different purposes and needs of the British. The Malay peasantry was provided with a rural-based Malay vernacular education, which had limited value in terms of educational mobility. This rural-based education was to serve as a means of social control for the British. On the other hand, the British provided the Malay nobility with an elitist English education that was intended to co-opt the Malay traditional elites into their fold. But contrary to the expectation of the British, the Malay-educated intelligentsia had become radical Malay nationalists. Alarmed by the threatened position of the Malays from the encroachment of the immigrant communities, in particular the Chinese, and spurred by the Indonesia nationalist movement, the radical Malay nationalists soon adopted an anti-British stance. However, the radical stance of the Malay educated intelligentsia eventually gave way to the traditional elitists who adopted a pro-British stance.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 102/09


    Dr. Goh Soo Khoon Dr. Wong Koi Nyen [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    Using multivariate cointegration and error-correction modeling techniques, this paper attempts to examine whether there exists a productivity-wage-unemployment relationship in Malaysia at the macroeconomic level. The main findings show that unemployment is dichotomized from the long-run equilibrium relationship between labor productivity and real wages, implying labor productivity is an important long-run factor in determining real wages, while unemployment has a negligible effect on the real wage rates. However, real wages are very responsive to a change in labor productivity, signaling a tight labor market that leads to an increase in unit labor cost. To be more resilient to rising wages and productivity gaps in a globally competitive environment, Malaysian industries should move up the value chain, and promote skill-and technology-intensive production.

    CenPRIS Working Paper No. 101/09


    by Dr. Tan Yao Sua Dr. Santhiram R. Raman

    [June 2009]

    Abstract : 

    The surging demand for higher education in Malaysia has led to the transformation from elitist to mass higher education. Several factors have, in one way or another, resulted in this changing higher education landscape. These factors include the democratization of secondary education, the restructuring of the economy, reduced number of students going abroad as a consequence of the global recession of the mid-1980s and later the Asian financial crisis in 1997, and the emergence of a knowledge-based economy. The Malaysian government adopted a two-pronged approach through the expansion of public institutions of higher learning and the liberalization of private higher education to provide more access to higher education to meet the surging demand. However, the transformation from elitist to mass higher education in Malaysia has brought about a host of problems. One crucial problem is the maintenance of standards and quality alongside quantitative development. Another problem relates to the emergence of a dual system of higher education which is divided along ethnic lines. Intense competition for students that threatens the survival of some private institutions of higher learning is also a matter of great concern. Graduate unemployment that arises from the lack of proficiency in English and oversupply of graduates in certain areas is yet another problem that merits the government’s attention.

    Archived List of Publications
    Ethnic Relations
    1. Impak pembangunan perumahan pangsa (kos rendah)ke atas struktur sosio-ekonomi dan hubungan etnik penghuni: Kajian kes Pulau Pinang
    2. Kajian Perpaduan Negara dalam Konteks Kerjasama Perniagaan di Antara Kaum-Deraf Akhir
    3. Social and Racial Harmony in Japanese Multi-National Companies in Malaysia: Contributing and Learning From A Multi-Ethnic Workforce
    4. Authority-defined Identity, Deeping Ethnicity and Anti-Ethnic Voting in Multi-Racial Malaysia
    5. Ethnic relations in Malaysia: A research guide
    Local Goverment Planning & Development
    1. Bancian Taraf Baling
    2. Projek REPIS Percubaan Ke arah Reformasi Penilaian Harta Benda Tempatan
    3. Social Impact Assessement on the Proposed Extension of Langkawi International Airport
    4. The Dynamics of Squatter Communities: Community Studies of Kuala Lumpur Squatters
    5. USM-MADA Padi Subsidy Scheme Project
    6. Draft: Strategies and Recommendations for Squatter Rehabilitation in the Federal Terittory
    7. Agricultural Land Taxation in Malaysia
    8. Land Concentration and Poverty Among the Rural Malays
    9. The Political Process of Land Reforms:A Comparative Study
    10. A Critical Study of the "Land to the Tiller" Reforms in Japan and Taiwan
    11. Class Monopoly Rent, Finance Capital and the Urban Revolution
    12. USM-MADA Land Tenure Study
    13. Urban Land Ownership Study
    14. A False Commodity like water, Urban Land is A Scarce Resource with Should be Husbanded by Public Authorities
    15. The Pattern of Landownership in Central Georgetown
    16. Land Tenure in the Muda Irrigation Area:Preliminary Paper
    17. Urban Expansion and Land Ownership in the Rural-Urban Fringe
    18. Urban Land Ownership in Penisular Malaysia: A Proposed Study
    19. Urban Land Ownership in Kota Bahru and Jeli, Kelantan.
    20. Landownership and Urban Development in Butterworth
    21. Owning the Means of Subsistance Reproduction: Urban and Rural Landownership
    22. REPIS Project An Experiment in Local Property Taxation Reform
    23. Project REPIS (Extension)
    24. The Squatter Problems in Kuala Lumpur
    25. KL Master Plan Housing Projections-Final Report
    26. Kajian Sikap Peserta Bandar Baru Ketengah
    27. Klang Valley Regional Planning Information System
    28. Squatter Comunities in the Federal Territory
    29. Land data system: Final report
    30. Penang island structure plan: HOUSING
    31. Penang island structure plan: EMPLOYMENT
    32. Profail sosio-ekonomi penduduk kawasan Kubang Menderong (USM-PERDA)
    33. Analysis & development of information system on evalution department, Majlis Perbandaran Seberang Perai (MPSP)
    34. Laporan Masalah Perumahan Bumiputera di Pulau Pinang
    35. Technical report On Urban Form and Landscape-Seberang Perai Structural Plan
    36. Development Study of Waqf Land, Penang
    37. Kajian potensi perancangan pembangunan tanah wakaf di Pulau Pinang
    38. Masyarakat Setinggan Negeri Selangor-Profile Isi Rumah dan Industri
    39. Perancangan dan pembangunan tenaga manusia
    40. Profail sosio-ekonomi masyarakat KETENGAH
    41. Kajian organisasi dan penempatan pegawai perkhidmatan tadbir Negeri Terengganu
    42. Study on The Housing Cluster in Penang
    43. The Development of Malay Communities in Penang
    44. Projek Impak Pembangunan Tanjung Tokong, UDA-CPR: Cadangan penyelidikan
    45. Development Impact of Tanjong Tokong: Housing Development and Environment
    46. Tabung warisan masyarakat Pulau Pinang: Sistem daftar program
    47. Projek impak pembangunan Tanjong Tokong, 1990: Persepsi penghuni fasa I,II & III
    48. Projek Impak pembangunan Tanjong Tokong: Laporan penemubual
    49. Projek impak pembangunan Tanjong Tokong, 1990: Metodologi
    50. Kajian impak pembangunan Pulau Langkawi ke atas masyarakat setempat
    51. Study on The Rent Control Act Premises (Phase 1)
    52. Projek pemulihan Seberang Perak (Terjemahan)
    53. Study on Malay Attitudes Toward The Development of Langkawi Island, Universiti Utara Malaysia
    54. Study on the Status of Temporary Occupation Licence (TOL) and Squatters in Penang
    55. Kajian penilaian status pemegang lesen penduduk sementara dan setinggan PP: Laporan akhir
    56. Kajian Impak Pembangunan Pulau Pinang: Geo Politik-Laporan Akhir
    57. Kajian Impak Pembangunan Pulau Pinang-Laporan Interim
    58. Kajian Penilaian, Perancangan dan Penubuhan Inventori Tanah Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Pulau Pinang-Laporan Interim
    59. The Impact of The Bumiputera Development programmes and Projects in Penang
    60. Kajian Perubahan Pola Gunatanah Daerah Barat Daya Negeri Pulau Pinang
    61. Evaluation Report on The Interim Report of Local Plan of Jawi-Nibong Tebal-Sungai Bakap
    62. Kajian Penilaian, Perancangan dan Penubuhan Inventori Tanah Majlis Agama Islam Negeri Pulau Pinang-Laporan Akhir
    63. Evaluation report On The Local Plan of Tasek Gelugor
    64. Study on The Development of Council Land
    65. The Development of Council Land and Assessment of Squatter's Status, Seberang Perai Municipality Council
    66. Evaluation Report on The Seberang Perai Structure Planning (Amendment)
    67. Planning Approval and Effectiveness: Case Study of 4 Local Authorities in Malaysia
    68. Project Research In Strategic Management:Strategic Planning for Seberang Municipality Council
    69. Laporan Akhir Perancangan Strategik MPSP
    70. Evaluation report on The technical Draft Report on Kepala Batas's Local Plan
    71. Housing Development in Penang-Impact Study
    72. Kajian Impak Demografi Ke atas Pola Perumahan Bumiputera Pulau Pinang-Laporan Akhir
    73. Impact Study of Perda's Development Strategies
    74. Kajian Impak Program Pembangunan PERDA-Laporan Akhir
    75. e-LA21 Baseline Data Collection for Ipoh City Council
    76. e-LA21 Baseline Data Collection for Kuantan Municipality Council
    77. e-LA21 Baseline Data Collection for Miri Municipality Council
    78. e-LA21 Baseline Data Collection for Petaling Jaya Municipality Council
    79. e-LA21 Baseline Data Collection for Shah Alam City Council
    80. Strategic Planning for Seberang Perai Municipality Council (Extension)
    81. Development Proposal for Balik Pulau-Input to State Structure Plan and Balik Pulau Local Plan(2002-2020)
    82. Issues and Challenges of Local Authorities in Malaysia
    83. Evaluation Report on The Interim Report of Local Plan for Penang Municipality Council
    Macro Economic Sector
    1. Restructuring Wealth Ownership
    2. Survey of Small scale Industries in Butterworth
    3. The Development of National Integrated Data System for Malaysia: A proposal for a pilot study
    4. Baling district agriculture status survey
    5. The Social Scientist in SEA
    6. DBKL-PPD Socio-Economic Survey-Instruction Manual
    7. Small and large padi farms in MUDA: A comparison of production yields and profitability
    8. The political economy of mechanization: The case of combine harvesters in the MUDA area, Kedah
    9. Kajian feasibiliti pusat komputer Negeri Terengganu Kuala Terengganu: Unit perancangan ekonomi Negeri Terengganu
    10. The First Five Years of Banking on the Small Enterprise
    11. A Study on Socio-Economic Impact of the Foreign Workers in Malaysia: Some Policy Recommendations-Final Report
    12. Latihan Kemahiran di Kalangan Pekerja Industri Kecil dan Sedrhana: Satu Kajian Persepsi dan Kemudahan Latihan-Laporan Akhir
    13. Industri Kecil dan Sederhana Makanan di Malaysia-Laporan Akhir
    14. Workers and Their Working Environment in Small-Medium Enterprises in Malaysia-Final Report
    15. Study and Survey of the Level of Industrial Participation In programmes to be Offered By A New Training Institution
    16. Socio-Economic Study for District of Pendang, Kedah
    Poverty and Microcredit
    1. A Study of Poverty inthe Muda Irrigation Scheme Area
    2. IADP Appendices
    3. Laporan Akhir-Banci Pekebun Kecil CPR-RISDA
    4. Land Concentration and Rural Poverty
    5. Land tenure in the MUDA irrigation area, Final report , part 1: Methodology
    6. Land tenure in the MUDA irrigation area,Final report , part 2: Finding
    7. Laporan sementara banci pekebun kecil getah Semenanjung Malaysia 1977: Analisa profail sosio-ekonomi kemiskinan dan penyertaan dalam rancangan
    8. Projek Perintis Kajian KEMUBU Laporan Akhir
    9. IADP Main Report
    10. Land reforms: Option and realities in the Malaysian Economy at the Crossroad
    12. Paddy Poverty and Public Policy
    13. The evolution of large paddy farms in the MUDA area, Kedah
    14. IADP Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang: Kajian terperinci perusahaan padi
    15. IADP Balik Pulau-Metodologi
    16. Projek perintis IADP Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang:Laporan akhir
    17. Mengurangkan Kemiskinan Melarat Kawasan Luar Bandar (BM)
    18. Reducing Extreme Rural Poverty Through Benevolent Loans (Eng)
    1. Pre-Pilot Demonstration Study: Butterworth
    2. A Medico-Social Study Of Drug Dependents Volunteering for Treatment at General Hospital Penang
    3. Kajian tujuh personaliti terkemuka melayu Pulau Pinang: Draf
    4. Kajian tujuh personaliti terkemuka melayu Pulau Pinang: Laporan akhir
    5. Kaunseling sebaya: Asas kaunseling sebaya
    6. Kursus kaunseling keluarga
    7. Bimbingan rakan sebaya: Pengenalan kepada kaedah bimbingan
    8. Bimbingan rakan sebaya: Strategi dalam bimbingan
    9. Perhubungan keluarga dan produktiviti kerja
    10. Projek penilaian kadar kematian bayi bagi mukim Batu Rakit, Terengganu:Kertas cadangan
    11. Bimbingan rakan sebaya: Pengenalan kepada kaedah bimbingan
    12. Projek penilaian kadar kematian bayi negeri Terengganu Darul Iman
    13. Projek penilaian kadar kematian bayi Terengganu Darul Iman: Deraf laporan akhir
    14. Projek penilaian kadar kematian bayi Terengganu Darul Iman: Laporan akhir (ringkasan penemuan kajian)
    15. The sosial relations management system
    16. USM executive planning session post graduate studies
    17. Projek penilaian kadar kematian bayi Terengganu Darul Iman: Metodologi
    18. Projek Bina Ilmu: Analisis prestasi akademik pelajar-pelajar di dalam peperiksaan SRP 1990
    19. Image Study of Leadership in Peninsular Malaysia
    20. Locality, Temporality and Boundaries in the 2004 Malaysia Hustings
    21. Malaysia's Leadership Perception
    22. Baseline Data, CPR/USM-Mimos-National IT Council (NITC), Prime Minister Department


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